Monthly Archives: December 2012

Endnotes 1-137 (Christian Hope)

Below are the endnotes for my book Christian Hope through Fulfilled Prophecy: Is Your Church Teaching Error about the Last Days and Second Coming? An Exposition of Evangelical Preterism. (Available at Amazon.com.)

1. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/12/13/us-usa-weather-religion-idUKBRE8BC1CX20121213.

2. The war is sometimes referred to as the First Jewish Roman
War or The Great Revolt. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Jewish%E2%80%93Roman_War.

3. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 6 (6.9.3). Available
online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM. The
number of dead is far more even than the US Civil War, which is estimated
to be between 600,000 and 750,000.

4. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 6 (6.3.4). Available
online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM.

5. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 5 (5.10.5) and Book
6 (6.9.4). Available online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM.

6. See these websites:
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Jewish%E2%80%93Roman_War
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish%E2%80%93Roman_wars
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Masada
• http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/jewishtemple.htm.

7. http://www.preteristcosmos.com/question5.html#note95.

8. Many scholars place the year of Jesus death on the cross at AD
33. So the intervening time till the destruction of the temple would have
been 37 years.

9. Edward E. Stevens, Introduction to the New Testament Canon, for
the Fulfilled Covenant Bible, Michael Day, editor, April 2011. This work
was still in progress and yet unpublished as of mid 2012. Here is the entire article: http://www.bibleprophecyfulfilled.com/bible/Intro_to_NT_Stevens.pdf. We highly recommend this article to our readers. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

10. The Reformation Study Bible, published in 2005, has contributions
from over fifty esteemed scholars; General Editor R. C. Sproul, Sr. In the introduction to the book of Luke, this source says (page 1451), “Luke and Acts may have been written about A.D. 63. Acts ends with Paul still under house arrest in Rome, and it is reasonable to think that if Luke knew of Paul’s release or death he would have mentioned it. Luke notes that the prophecy of Agabus was fulfilled (Acts 11:28); he would surely have done the same with Jesus’ prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem (Luke 21:20) if he was writing after A.D. 70. Acts mentions nothing that must be dated after A.D. 62 and shows no knowledge of Paul’s letters. All these factors argue for an early date.” In the introduction to the book of Matthew, The Reformation Study Bible (page 1359) states, “Further, there is some evidence in the context of the book that Matthew was written before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. The Gospel warns against the Sadducees, a group that rapidly declined from prominence after A.D. 70 and ultimately ceased to exist. The language used to describe the destruction of Jerusalem in ch. 24 reflects Old Testament prophecies of the divine judgment that Jesus foresaw as connected with the coming of His kingdom. There is no need to explain the content of ch. 24 as the author’s memory of a historical event.” Scholars generally agree that Mark was written before Matthew and Luke. The Reformation Study Bible was published by Ligonier Ministries, 400 Technology Park, Lake Mary, FL  32746.

11. Here is a partial list of authors who argue for dating the New
Testament prior to AD 70:

  • David Chilton, Paradise Restored: An Eschatology of Dominion (Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 2000)
  • Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness: Obsession of the Modern Church (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1999), Fourth revised edition. Available from their website http://americanvision.org/DeMar is considered a partial preterist. 
  • Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., Before Jerusalem Fell: Dating the Book of Revelation (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1998). Gentry is considered a partial preterist/postmillennialist
  • Arthur M. Ogden, The Avenging of the Apostles and Prophets(Pinson, Alabama: Ogden Publications, 2006), Third Edition. Excellent argumentation for the early pre-70 date of the book of Revelation. Available from their website: http://www.aogden.com/index.shtml.  
  • John A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Westminster Press, 1976). (Robinson is considered a liberal scholar who was convinced that the entire New Testament was written prior to AD 70.) 
  • J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s  Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003), originally published in 1878. 
  • Milton S. Terry, Biblical Hermeneutics: A Treatise on the Interpretation of the Old and New Testaments (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Academie Books, a division of Zondervan Publishing House, 1984), originally published in 1898. Available in a free online versionat http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1883_terry_biblical-hermeneutics.html 
  • Cornelius Vanderwaal, Hal Lindsey and Biblical Prophecy (St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada: Paideia Press, 1978). 

12. The Reformation Study Bible says, “Revelation was written during a time of persecution, probably near the end of the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero (A.D. 54-68) or during the reign of Domitian (A.D. 81-96). Most scholars favor a date about A.D. 95.” As a preview to Chapter 9, these websites list numerous advocates for a pre-AD 70 authorship of Revelation:
http://livingthequestion.org/revelation/
http://www.preteristarchive.com/BibleStudies/ApocalypseC- ommentaries/Dating/Early/index.html.

13. C. S. Lewis, The World’s Last Night: And Other Essays (New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1960), pages 97-98. Available online at http://www.archive.org/details/worldslastnighta012859mbp.

14. Quote by Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons in The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc. (Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), page 57.
See http://www.preterism.info/jews-reject-futurism.htm.

15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_prophecies_of_Joseph_Smith.

16. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association,
website http://preterist.org.

17. J. I. Packer, Fundamentalism and the Word of God, (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1958), pages 69-70.

18. Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000), page 2. One can also find various lists of historic false prophets on the Internet, such as these websites:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unfulfilled_Christian_religious_predictions
http://www.abhota.info/index.htm
http://www.ministryserver.com/rwsr/Part01_Introduction.htm
http://americanvision.org/4545/before-harold-camping-therewas-chuck-smith/
http://publisherscorner.nordskogpublishing.com/2009/01/is-it-time-for-doomsday-or-for-building.html
http://politicaloutcast.com/2012/12/bible-scholar-predicts-end-of-world-and-immobilizes-millions/.
• (The interested reader can search for more such sites in the Internet.)

19. Cited by Don K. Preston, The Last Days Identified (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Productions LLC, 2004), page 79. See also this article by Daniel Walther entitled “RESEARCH: Martin Luther and the End of the World”: http://www.ministrymagazine.org/archive/1951/December/martin-luther-and-the-end-of-the-world.

20. From “American Lutheran Views on Eschatology and How
They Related to the American Protestants” by John M. Brenner.

21. The reader can find numerous lists of failed predictions on the
Internet. Sources include:
• Kenneth Dahl, http://www.facebook.com/notes/letting-god-escape/50-things-i-did-not-learn-in-church-about-the-end-timesby-ken-dahl/301690093241071,  also Dahl’s book All  These Things http://kennethdahl.com/allthesethings.pdf.
• Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness: Obsession of the Modern Church (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1999), Fourth revised edition, chapter 1.
http://www.bible.ca/pre-date-setters.htm.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dates_predicted_for_apocalyptic_events.

22. See:
• Gary DeMar and Francis X. Gumerlock, The Early Church and the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006), pages 27-38.
• Gary DeMar, Is Jesus Coming Soon? (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006).
• See also Samuel M. Frost, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (Colorado Springs, CO: Bimillennial Press, 2002).

Online sources for many of the preterist quotes from the early church fathers include:

23. See Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: A Chronicle of Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000). Most of what the early Church Fathers wrote remain untranslated—some 218 Latin and 166 Greek volumes.

24. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History (Church History), Book lll, chapters 28, 39. Available online here: http://ncbible.info/MoodRes/History/EusebiusChurchHistory.pdf. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eusebius_of_Caesarea, and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papias_of_Hierapolis.

25. Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History (Church History). Noteworthy are Book lll, chapters 7, 8, and 39 (against Papias and Irenaeus). Available online here: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers

Eusebius, The Proof of the Gospel (Demonstratio Evangelica) trans. W. J. Ferrar, 2 vols. in 1 (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1981). Some noteworthy passages about the Lord’s coming in AD 70 include: Book VI, Chapter 13, paragraphs 13-18; Book VI, Chapter 18, paragraphs 26 and 27; Book VIII, Introduction first paragraph; Book VIII, Chapter 4, paragraphs 144, 146, 147; Book X, Chapter 7, paragraph 214. Available online at these sites:

Eusebius, Theophania. Noteworthy sections include: Book III, paragraph 4; Book IV, paragraphs 16-22, 28-29, 34-36; Book V, paragraph 17. You can see the work online at these links, as well as a summary by Samuel Lee:

See also:

See also Gary DeMar and Francis X. Gumerlock, The Early Church and the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006), Chapter 2 and pages 74-75. The authors point out that in addition to Eusebius’ view that Matthew 24 was fulfilled in AD 70, Eusebius also placed crucial passages from Zechariah as having been fulfilled prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.

See also Don K. Preston, We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 292-294.

26. The Reformation Study Bible (Lake Mary, Florida: Ligonier Ministries,
2005), page 1185.

27. Henry A. Virkler, Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical
Interpretation (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1981), page 16.

28. Christians take different approaches to the Bible. (1) It is authoritative. This view holds that, while there may be errors in the Bible, it is accurate enough to be a basis for Christianity. In this view, the Bible “contains” the word of God but is not in its entirety the word of God. (2) It is the inspired word of God in its entirety. This is a higher standard based on self-identification within the Bible itself, including: the term “thus says the Lord” used over 400 times in the Old Testament, the term “God said” used 42 times in the Old Testament and 4 times in the New Testament, the term “God spoke” used 9 times in the Old Testament and 3 times in the New Testament, the term “the Spirit of the Lord Spoke” used 3 times in the Old Testament, also specific passages such as Psalm 119:99, 160; Matthew 15:6; Mark 7:13; John 10:35; Acts 3:18; Romans 15:4; 1 Corinthians 7:12; 1 Timothy 3:15-16; 2 Peter 1:20-21; 2 Peter 3:14-16. (3) It is inerrant (without any error in the original manuscripts). This is an inference from the previous position, as well as a result of critical textual analysis. (4) It is infallible, that is it could not possibly err—this being the highest standard.

See the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy:

http://www.bible-researcher.com/chicago1.html.

See also:

http://www.faithfacts.org/search-for-truth/questions-of-christians/is-the-bible-really-gods-word.

29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antichrist_(historicism). The Westminster Confession formerly had a statement in it about the Pope being the antichrist, but that was removed. There is at least one denomination that we are aware of that still says the Pope is the antichrist in its official statements: the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Church.

30. We are not suggesting that the Bible contradicts science. It does not. Sometimes Christians assume that the Bible is speaking of scientific things when it is really speaking of theological things.

31. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003), originally published in 1878, page 328-329.

32. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=G2889&t=KJV.

33. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistle_of_Barnabas and also specifically verse 16:5 of the Epistle of Barnabas: http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/barnabas-lightfoot.html.

34. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of
Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist
Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 198.

35. Don K. Preston, from an article “The Passing of the Elements: 2
Peter 3:10”: http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/0000_preston_elements.html.

36. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 165.

37. See Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), pages 63-80. Jubilees is considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, as well as Jews in Ethiopia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_Of_Jubilees).

38. Daniel 2:28; 7:26; 8:17; 8:19; 9:26-27; 10:14; 11:27; 11:40; 12:4; 12:9; 12:13. Not all of these refer to the same end. There are various periods of time prophesied in Daniel. Some are clearly about pre-Messianic worldly kingdom dynasties and are often identified as such in the text, for example Daniel 8:20 and 8:21. So the “time of the end” in these instances refers to the end of those dynasties. However, some are clearly Messianic references, such as those identified with the term “Son of Man” (Daniel 7:13 and 8:17), which Jesus applied to himself. Daniel 7:9-27 clearly ties to the Second Coming predictions made by Jesus in the Olivet Discourse (Matthew 24/25; Mark 13; Luke 21) in which Jesus promises to return in judgment on clouds in his generation. In terms of confirming full preterism, Daniel 12 is the most important first century AD eschatological reference in the book of Daniel.

39. The NASV translates Daniel 12:4 as the “end of time.” But this is a mistranslation. Other translations such as NKJV, ASV, and NIV correctly translate it “time of the end.”

40. The removal of the daily sacrifice could refer to a time shortly before the destruction, when the zealots brought an end to the priesthood and sacrifices. Or it could potentially refer to a time even earlier around AD 66 when the Jews stopped making sacrifices to Caesar.

41. While this can be a bit confusing, the taking away of the burnt offering is also mentioned in Daniel 8:11 and 11:31. These mentions probably refer to the first such cessation of the burnt offering in the mid-2nd century BC, when King Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ruler of the Seleucid Kingdom from 175-164 BC) forbade ceremonies and the worship of God in the Jerusalem temple and in the cities of Judah. In around 168 (or perhaps 167) BC Antiochus entered the Most Holy Place and plundered the silver and gold vessels. He erected an altar to the Olympian Zeus on the altar of God in the temple court and sacrificed pigs there. The books of 1 and 2 Maccabees (books in the Roman Catholic Bible but not in the Protestant Bible) mention the abomination of desolation in reference to these actions of Antiochus. There are some confirming indications within Daniel that at least the 8:11-14 mention of the abomination of desolation/cessation of the burnt offering refers to the Antiochus abomination. First, the context is the pre-Messianic visions. Secondly, verse 8:14 indicates that the temple would be restored. The temple was indeed cleansed and rededicated under the leadership of Judas Maccabeus in 164 BC. Other instances of the burnt offering cessation and the abomination of desolation (Daniel 9:27 and 12:11) are portrayed differently by Daniel than the Antiochus situation. At the end of the AD 66-70 abomination period, instead of being cleansed, the temple would be destroyed (Daniel 9:26) and the Jewish nation would be shattered (Daniel 12:7-11).

42. Citations for these quotes are from Flavius Josephus, Jewish Wars, trans. H. St. J. Thackeray (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), 5:401-403, 417-420. Also, Josephus, The Essential Works, ed. Paul L. Maier (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Academic & Professional, 1988; Revised edition, May 17, 1995), page 358. We derived this information from Tina Rae Collins, The Gathering in the Last Days (New York: M. F. Sohn Publications, 2012), page 66.

43. The Apocrypha is a group of ancient writings that are not considered canonical, but have appeared in some versions of the Bible throughout history. Most modern Protestant Bibles omit them.

44. See Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 4, Chapter 5, Paragraph 1 (4.5.1). Available online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM. See also these links: http://www.preteristarchive.com/JewishWars/timeline_factional.html and http://www.preterist.org/preteristQA.asp#question17.

45. Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc.(Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), pages 13-17, 88.

46. Three and a half years, on a 360 day calendar, is 1260 days. On a 365 day calendar three and a half years is 1278 days. According to one source who has worked on these numbers, the Jewish month was either 29 or 30 days. Corrections were made from time to time to keep the calendar in line with the seasons. According to this source, the Jews added an “intercalary” thirteenth month to their calendar (sort of a leapmonth) every third year or so. This adjustment could account for the difference between 1290 days and 1260 days. But a strong conclusion with absolute precision remains elusive.

47. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 6 (6.1.1). Available online athttp://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM.

48. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 7 (7.1.1). Available online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM.

49. If the reader is concerned that the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 was limited in scope compared to the Great Flood which you assume was worldwide, there is a book that might be of interest: Beyond Creation Science by Timothy P. Martin & Jeffrey L. Vaughn, PhD. This book makes a strong case that the Great Flood was not, as many Christians think, worldwide. Rather it was regional. They give many valid biblical arguments; for example, the Bible tells us that the Nephilim were present on the earth before the flood as well as after the flood, so
not everyone outside of Noah’s family was killed in the flood. If their arguments are valid, Jesus’ comparing the destruction of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Great Flood makes even more sense than previously thought.

50. http://preterism.ning.com/profiles/blogs/the-abomination-of-desolation.

51. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 45. Available from the International Preterist Association at their website: http://www.preterist.org.

52. David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation (Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 1987).

53. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), pages 64, 65, and 546.

54. For the uses of these words in the New Testament see: http://www.blueletterbible.org/. See also this article: http://www.verumserum.com/the-return-of-christ/eschatological-word-studies#toc-threegreek-words-for-the-return.

55. Hebrews 9:28 in most translations states that Christ “will appear a second time.” The phrase “will appear” is the Greek verb optanomai. In John 14:3 Jesus says He “will come again.” Here the phrase “will come” is the Greek verb erchomai.

56. Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness: Obsession of the Modern Church (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1999), Fourth revised edition, page 160.

57. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), Appendix to Part II, pages 350-354.

58. Found at various sources on the Internet.

59. Some people might focus on Matthew 23:39, where Jesus says: “You will not see Me again, until you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.” Their objection is that this seems to be a visible coming of Jesus which they believe has not yet occurred. But this statement is in the immediate context of Jesus’ lament over Jerusalem, and in the “this generation” time frame of verse 36. Coming “in the name of the Lord” could be an affirmation of his divinity and thus consistent with Matthew 24. It seems best to understand this as “see Me in the judgment that I will bring.” Thus, the Jews would see the effects of the judgment, not Jesus visibly. See also Chapter 12 for a discussion of the visibility of Jesus’ return.

60. http://www.verumserum.com/the-return-of-christ/eschatological-word-studies#toc-three-greek-words-for-the-return. See also this article by William Bell http://www.examiner.com/article/the-meaning-of-generation-matthew-24-34.

61. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 69.

62. For an interesting discussions of how some partial preterists see two separate Second Comings of Jesus in the Oliver Discourse, see these articles by Daniel E. Harden entitled “When Is a Heretic Not a Heretic?”:  http://www.preterist.org/articles/heretic.asp  and “Split Decision: Olivet Stands United”: http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/1999_harden_olivet-united.html

63. http://www.worldwithoutend.info/start/articles/ed_stevens_03-matt24.htm. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist
Association, website http://preterist.org.

64. We note that Jesus spoke Hebrew and/or Aramaic. But the New Testament was written in Greek. The region at the time was multicultural and multilingual. So Jesus perhaps may have known Greek, or even Latin. See http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Articles/Jesus_Hebrew/jesus_hebrew.html.

65. Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness: Obsession of the Modern Church (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision), Fourth revised edition 1999, . DeMar is a partial preterist postmillennialist rather than a full preterist. See also these additional books: (1) Kenneth Dahl’s book All These Things: http://kennethdahl.com/allthesethings.pdf. (2) Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), pages 47-64.

66. http://www.eschatology.org.

67. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878). This quote is a summary of Russell’s comments on pages 56 and 57.

68. John L. Bray, Matthew 24 Fulfilled (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1996), page 85.

69. Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology, Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), page 39.

70. Ibid, page 46.

71. We will see the word mello numerous times in our study. While some would deny the imminency connotation of this Greek word, author Joseph Vincent analyzes how the word is used in non-eschatological passages and shows that the word normally means “near in time.” See Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), pages 95-99.

72. The Parousia of Christ may have begun at Pentecost per Matthew 26:64, but the consummation (i.e., his coming with his angels in the glory of his Father and rewarding every man according to his works) happened in AD 70.

73. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7lGKIGFpNM&feature=relmfu. According to Preston there are three exceptions. See the next endnote for the full quote.

74. http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/0000_preston_critical-text.html.

75. Milton S. Terry, Biblical Apocalyptics: A Study of the Most Notable Revelations of God and of Christ in the Canonical Scriptures, originally published in 1898, page 222. Terry was also the author of a classic work on hermeneutics entitled Biblical Hermeneutics: A Treatise on the Interpretation of the Old and New Testaments. See also: http://www.verumserum.com/the-return-of-christ.

76. Taken from the foreword by Gary DeMar in The Day and the Hour by Francis X. Gumerlock. These authors cite as the source for the quote: Gerald B. Stanton, “The Doctrine of Imminency: Is It Biblical?” in Thomas Ice and Timothy Demy, eds., When the Trumpet Sounds (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1997), page 222.

77. Brian L. Martin, Behind the Veil of Moses: Piecing Together the Mystery of the Second Coming (Xulon Press, 2009), page 163.

78. Scholars disagree about how long after the giving of the prophecy that its fulfillment took place. For example, some say 200 years, others say 142 years. Alan Bondar cites Walvoord’s Bible Knowledge Commentary (page 1060) as saying that Babylon was destroyed within 15 years after the prophecy. See Alan Bondar, Reading the Bible through New Covenant Eyes (Baltimore, MD: Publish America, 2010), pages 193, 331.

79. Some people challenge preterists by pointing out that certain Old Testament texts that were to be fulfilled “soon” didn’t happen until hundreds of years later. Certain of these texts are Isaiah 51:5; Ezekiel 7:7; 30:3; Jeremiah 48:16; Joel 1:15; 2:1; 3:14; Obadiah 1:15; Zephaniah 1:7, 14. Alan Bondar cites non-preterist authors who have each of these passages being fulfilled within a generation of the actual prophecy. He cites (1) Homer Hailey, Commentary on the Minor Prophets (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Publishing, 1973), and (2) John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck, Bible Knowledge Commentary (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985). See Alan Bondar, Reading the Bible through New Covenant Eyes (Baltimore, MD: Publish America, 2010), pages 193, 331.

80. http://revelationrevolution.org/isaiah-65-a-preterist-commentary.

81. http://www.andrewcorbett.net/articles/new-heavens.html.

82. http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/0000_preston_ no-death.html.

83. See this article by Duncan McKenzie: http://planetpreterist.com/news-5109.html.

84. Flavius Josephus, The Wars of the Jews, Book 6 (6.5.3). Available online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM.

85. In addition to Josephus, Tacitus, Eusebius, and the Jewish Talmud mentioned this phenomenon. See: Josephus Wars (6.5.3.296 to 300), Tacitus Histories (Book 5), Eusebius Ecclesiastical History (Book 3, Chapter 8, Sections 1-6), Sepher Yosippon A Mediaeval History of Ancient Israel (Chapter 87, “Burning of the Temple”). See also Edward E. Stevens http://www.preterist.org/preteristQA.asp#question7.

86. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 3 (3.6.4, and 3.7.7). Available online at http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/JOSEPHUS.HTM. See also http://ontimejournal.com/new-heaven-and-new-earth.

87. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persecution_of_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire.

88. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 366.

89. For details, see Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), pages 2-3.

90. See http://livingthequestion.org/revelation/ (lists 62 scholars who support a pre-AD 70 date for Revelation). This book contains lists of authors who argue for a pre-AD 70 date for Revelation: Kenneth L.Gentry, Jr., Before Jerusalem Fell: Dating the Book of Revelation (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 1998), chapter 4. Among numerous other books that address this and which argue for a pre-AD 70 date include: (1) Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), page 249-250. (2) Gary DeMar and Francis X. Gumerlock, The Early Church and the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006), pages 167-177. (3) Samuel Frost, David Green, Edward Hassertt, Michael Sullivan, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), pages 131-149. (4) Brian L. Martin, Behind the Veil of Moses: Piecing Together the Mystery of the Second Coming. (Xulon Press, 2009), page 135.

Articles about the dating of Revelation:

http://www.preteristarchive.com/BibleStudies/ApocalypseC- ommentaries/Dating/Early/index.html,
http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/0000_preston_revela- tion-date.html,
http://biblicaleschatology.org/2009/01/05/research-insights-into- the-date-of-revelation-part-iv/
http://api.ning.com/files/y43g75DEG9wIQpsxrkrl0esZAFk3z- 5ZolOQDVar16vGVjLGJH*5cNs6BTLNpt8uwyFxmmpgK- PNQZNQSmV5JydE9GtOhybO7c/DidJohnLiveBeyond70.pdf

We also note commentary by Edward E. Stevens from Introduction to the New Testament Canon, for the Fulfilled Covenant Bible project, April 2011. It is a articularly interesting and helpful article. In it Stevens lists the probable dates that each New Testament book was written:

http://www.bibleprophecyfulfilled.com/bible/Intro_to_NT_Stevens.pdf.

Stevens wrote that the apostle John died during the Neronic persecution, about the same time as Peter and Paul (ca. AD 64-65). Eusebius (AD 263-339) cites two men before him that said that John lived until the reign of the Roman emperor Trajan (AD 98-117)—Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria. But Eusebius also said that there were doubts as to John’s authorship of Revelation, so the accuracy of such statements is doubtful. In any case, assuming that John wrote Revelation as is commonly held, even if he did live past AD 70, that does not mean that Revelation was written after AD 70.

We also refer the reader to: Edward E. Stevens, First Century Events in Chronological Order: from the Birth of Christ to the Destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70, A Pre-publication Manuscript (International Preterist Association, 2009), pages 19-21. See also: Edward E. Stevens, “Did John Live Beyond AD 70?”— http://api.ning.com/files/y43g75DEG9wIQpsxrkrl0esZAF- k3z5ZolOQDVar16vGVjLGJH*5cNs6BTLNpt8uwyFxmmpgKPNQZN- QSmV5JydE9GtOhybO7c/DidJohnLiveBeyond70.pdf

91. R. C. Sproul, The Last Days according to Jesus (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1998), page 141.

92. There are other possibilities concerning the Irenaeus quote, which purports to tie the writing of the book of Revelation to the reign of Domitian (AD 81-96). One possibility is that the family name of Nero was Domitius, so Irenaeus could have been referring to Nero. Another is that Domitian was the son of Vespasian (and brother of Titus). Ves- pasian was elected Emperor in December 69. But he was not in Rome at the time. It took Vespasian six months to make his way back to Rome from Jerusalem and Egypt, where he was securing foodstuff for his soldiers. During this half year, Domitian assumed the role temporar- ily as Caesar. So, if Irenaeus was indeed saying that John was writing Revelation during the reign of Domitian, he may have been referring to this period!

93. R. C. Sproul, The Last Days according to Jesus (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1998), page 147. See also: “When Was the Book of Revelation Written” by Wolfgang Schneider: http://www.biblecenter. de/bibel/studien/e-std310.php.

94. Frederic Myers, Catholic Thoughts on the Bible and Theology (London: Dalby, Isbister & Co, 1879), The Fourth Book, chapter 35, page 327. Available online at http://www.archive.org/stream/catholicthoughtsonbible00myer#page/n3/mode/2up.

95. http://livingthequestion.org/revelation/.

96. http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/eschatology/beast.php.

97.

http://blog.adw.org/2012/11/why-the-modern-view-of-the-book-of-revelation-may-be-flawed/

98. http://newjerusalemcommunity.blogspot.com/2012/10/behold- he-cometh-with-clouds-and-every.html.

99. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beast_(Revelation).

100. Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), pages 52f. This is an excellent book for those desiring to get deeper into this topic.

101. Gary DeMar, End Times Fiction: A Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001), pages 126-127.

102. Gary DeMar, Last Days Madness: Obsession of the Modern Church (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, Fourth Revised Edition 1999).

103. R. C. Sproul, The Last Days according to Jesus (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books, 1998).

104. See endnote 21 at this source:

http://www.freedominchrist.net/BIBLICAL%20STUDIES/New%20Testament/Revelation/Chapter%202–Identity%20of%20the%20Beast%20of%20Revelation.htm

Endnote 21 states: Philostratus, Apollonius of Tyana,  vol., 1 [Loeb edition, vol., 16], Book IV. XXXVIII, Loeb Classical Library, translated by F. C. Conybeare (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1917, 2004), 437, 438.

105. For a description of Nero, see Kenneth Dahl’s book All These Things: http://kennethdahl.com/allthesethings.pdf, page 43.

106. There is quite a bit of discussion about this on the Internet, which the reader could check if so inclined.

107. http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/eschatology/beast.php.

108. Gary DeMar, End Times Fiction: a Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers), page 143.

109. There are other preterist views of who the beast was. Edward E. Stevens has written about certain clues in Revelation that suggest that the beast was Jewish, therefore was not Nero. See Fulfilled! Magazine, Spring 2012, pages 10-12: http://www.fulfilledcg.com/Site/Magazine/magazine_previous_issues.htm.

110. Steve Gregg, Revelation, Four Views: A Parallel Commentary. (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997), pages 466-468.

111. Anthony A. Hoekema, The Meaning of the Millennium (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1977), page 161. Cited from Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), page 103. It should be noted that Hoekema was not a preterist.

112. A helpful book is Revelation: Four Views, a Parallel Commentary, by Steve Gregg (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1997.)

113. ibid.

114. Very helpful resources are Don Preston’s book Who Is This Babylon and his multi-part YouTube series (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cnzgVRo-eqA&feature=related).

115. Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), page 98.

116. While some scholars place AD 30 as the year of Jesus’ crucifixion and ascension, others including the respected Lutheran historian Dr. Paul L. Maier, professor of Ancient History at Western Michigan University, places the date of the crucifixion as April 3, AD 33. See http://www.mtio.com/articles/aissar30.htm. While this would make the millennium 37 years, the student of Scripture can scarcely miss the parallel of 40 years to other uses of 40 in the Bible, especially the 40 year wandering of the Exodus.

117. See David A. Green http://www.preterist.org/articles/ezekiel_38_39.asp.

118. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 525.

119. It could also be that John 3 refers to national rebirth/restoration of Israel, as explained in this article by Derrick Olliff:

http://beatenbrains.blogspot.com.au/2006/08/eschatology-of-being-born-again.html.

120. It is conceivable that this first resurrection also included a physical resurrection of already martyred saints from the dead. If this is the case, one might conclude that the time span between the first and second resurrections was a period considerably shorter than 40 years. This would be consistent with Revelation 6:9-11 (“rest a little longer”). The student should not get hung up on this detail. The key to understanding Revelation 20 is verses 11-15 which was the general resurrection and judgment that happened coincident with the Second Coming.

121. Preterists offer somewhat different interpretations of who was resurrected and when per Revelation 20. Some preterists think that the first resurrection was the resurrection of the just, while the second resurrection was the resurrection of the unjust. Other preterists believe that the first resurrection refers to the resurrection from hades. And so forth.

122. Satan in these texts may be symbolic for apostate Israel.

123. One can get around this argument of the premillennial preterists by pointing out that the text does not say the beheaded were resurrected AFTER they were beheaded. It merely says “they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years.” Thus, they “lived” before they were beheaded.

124. James Stuart Russel held to a version of this view. Modern au- thor Duncan McKenzie is the major present writer in support of this view. There are variations in the details from different writers. Russell held that verses 5-10 are still future. McKenzie thinks that only verses 7-10 are still future. See Duncan McKenzie’s articles:

http://planetpreterist.com/news-5017.html,
http://planetpreterist.com/news-5174.html,
• Also see his book The Antichrist and the Second Coming, A Pret- erist Examination (Xulon Press, 2012).
• Preterist Milton Terry, a contemporary of Russell, held that verses 11-15 were still future (Milton S. Terry, Biblical Apocalyp- tics, 1898: http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1898_terry_ apocalyptics.html).

Most preterists take issue with McKenzie, Russell, and Terry’s conclu- sion in this matter. Don Preston has a section in his book that argues against the views of McKenzie : Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), pages 281-321.

125. See articles by Kurt M. Simmons: http://www.preteristcentral.com/Studies%20in%20the%20Millennia.html. Also see Simmons’ book The Consummation of the Ages. And see the book by Douglass Wilkinson, Making Sense of the Millennium (Kindle Edition).

126. See article by Ed Stevens, “A 40-Year Millennium”:http://planetpreterist.com/content/40-year-millennium. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

127. For a detailed discussion of this, see David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation (Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 1987), chapter 21.

128. http://www.preterism.info/why-still-death.htm. Fenemore has also co-authored a book with Kurt M. Simmons: The Twilight of Postmillennialism: Fatal Errors in the Teaching of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. et. al.

129. http://planetpreterist.com/news-5109.html.    The bride of Christ (Revelation 21:2, 9-10) is elsewhere in the Bible described as the church (Matthew 9:15; John 3:29; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:22-23, etc.).

130. http://www.preterist.org/articles/answering_mathison.asp.

131. David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation(Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 1987), page 494, 502.

132. The quote from Russell is from The Parousia pages 228-229. The concepts of salvation and redemption are linked in the New Testament to the point of being essentially equivalent. See such passages as Colossians 1:14 and Hebrews 9:15.

133. The reader can also consider such passages as Isaiah 27:9-12 and 59:17-21, as well as Romans 11:25-27.

134. Isaiah 28:11 and Joel 2:28-29 are further evidence, according to some, that speaking in tongues was a sign of God’s oncoming judgment. So, when God did judge the nation of Israel in AD 70, the gift of tongues was no longer to serve a purpose. Those who object to the interpretation that tongues ceased in AD 70 argue that in the same passage Paul says that “knowledge” will also cease. How can knowledge cease? One interpretation is that this means knowledge from the writings of the apostles; that is, the canon of Scripture would be complete by AD 70. This lends credence to the Reformation tenet that Scripture alone is sufficient for all matters of faith and life. Or perhaps a better understanding of the cessation of knowledge is that with the fulfillment of prophecy in the first century, the matters of the Old Testament that were vague for Jews became clear in their completion. For some additional discussion of the gift of tongues, see these links:
• http://www.preteristarchive.com/PartialPreterism/ma_speak.html
• http://www.treeoflifeministries.info/index.php?view=article&catid=35%3Apreterist-eschatology-all-prophecy-fulfilled-by-ad-70&id=149%3Amike-sullivan&option=com_content&Itemid=75
• http://so4j.com/faq.php#speaking_in_tongues
• http://www.preteristcosmos.com/gift.htm.

135. By one count, “kingdom” is found 122 times in the New Testament. Millennialists sometimes separate the two terms “kingdom of God” and “kingdom of heaven” in order to attempt to find a spiritual kingdom and an earthly kingdom. But this is incorrect. According to Joseph Ratzinger (Eschatology, page 26), Matthew used the term Kingdom of Heaven instead of Kingdom of God out of respect for Jewish tradition, which did not mention the name of God out of reverence. See also http://www.gotquestions.org/kingdom-heaven-God.html.

136. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 344.

137. Brian L. Martin, Behind the Veil of Moses: Piecing Together the Mystery of the Second Coming (Xulon Press, 2009), page 135.

Endnotes 138-274 (Christian Hope)

138. Partial preterist/postmillennialist Gary DeMar said, emphasizing his postmillennialism: “The only signs that are yet to be fulfilled are the discipleship of the nations and Jesus putting all His enemies under His feet.” See DeMar, Gary, End Times Fiction: A Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001), page 214.

139. Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), pages 101, 103.

140. See Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), Section lll.

141. Annihilationism seems to be gaining adherents in the church as some well respected scholars are proponents of this view. An In- ternet site that has some good articles on this view is the “Death and Immortality” section of http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/ index.php.

142. Scholars who hold to annihilationism believe either that hell means instant destruction to the damned, or that the damned may reside in hell for a period of time before their ultimate destruction. Annihilationism seems to be gaining adherents in the church as some well respected scholars are proponents of this view. An Internet site that has some good articles on this view is the “Death and Immortality” section of http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/index.php.  Here is a link to a lecture on the subject by a well-known proponent Edward Fudge: http://vimeo.com/30967402 . Fudge is a major proponent of annihilationism and has written books on the subject, notably The Fire that Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment. The reader can also check out Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An
Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD
Press, 2009), Section lll. Here is another link for study: http://robertwr.com/. For a defense of eternal conscious punishment, see Hell on Trial by Robert A. Peterson.

143. Actually, it does seem doubtful that most Christians, who claim to hold to eternal conscious punishment, really do believe in it. If they really believed in it, they would be much for active in their evangelism effort. One study suggested that only 2% of Christians ever share their faith! If they really thought the non-believers around them were destined to burn in hell forever, they would be constantly evangelizing!

144. Paul in 1 Corinthians 7 confirms that those married should remain married.

145. Source: http://www.reformedonline.com.

146. The Greek word is mello (Strong’s G3195). Futurists sometimes object to the translation “about to.” Indeed, most Bible versions translate mello as “will” and thus do not have the imminency connotation. However, the online Blue Letter Bible lexicon states that the biblical usage of the word is “to be about, to be on the point of doing or suffering something, or to intend, have in mind, think to.” So while there are different potential translations, the context determines that “about to” is a good and reasonable rendering such that this passage and others like it are consistent with the numerous other imminency passages. The imminency connotation is clear in Young’s Literal Translation which one can access online at such sites as Bible Gateway. This translation is confirmed by these other sources: Vine’s Theological Dictionary, Thayer’s Greek/English Lexicon, The Analytical Greek Lexicon, Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich, Second Edition, and Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. The following is an article by Parker Voll about this word: Fulfilled! Magazine, Spring 2012 (pages 12, 13, 18): http://www.fulfilledcg.com/Site/Magazine/magazine_previous_issues.htm, pages 12, 13, 18.

147. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in the Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 174. For clarification, Preston does believe that the general resurrection occurred in AD 70, but does not believe it was the “physically dead being raised out of the dirt.”

148. http://beatenbrains.blogspot.com.au/2006/08/eschatology-of-being-born-again.html.

149. Those who expect a fleshly physical body in the resurrection cite Job 19:25-26. According to Kurt Simmons, “This is the only verse in the Bible that makes reference to the flesh in apparent connection with the resurrection. However, the Hebrew of this verse is so obscure and ambiguous that scholars cannot decide how it is to be translated.” See Kurt M. Simmons, “The Resurrection of the Flesh.”

150. For supplementary material on resurrection, see the author’s articles at http://prophecyquestions.com/2013/02/02/articles- by-charles-meek.

151. Interestingly, Adam was not even the first person to die in the Bible. Abel holds that distinction. The primary objection to the idea that the Fall was only a spiritual event is that Genesis 3 speaks of physical things, such as the pain of childbirth, and also that the ground itself was cursed. But it should be pointed out that the text only states that the pain of childbirth would be multiplied, which clearly implies that such pain existed before the Fall.

152. Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), page 157.

153. http://www.preterist.org/articles/answering_mathison.asp.

154. These young earth creationists also teach that even though predator animals like lions had teeth specifically made for killing and eating meat, they only ate vegetable matter at first. For information about the old earth viewpoint, go to http://www.reasons.org and search for “Animal Death before the Fall.” There you should find an article by Lee Irons, as well as other interesting material.

155. Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), page 159-160.

156. From the PretCosmos Yahoo chatroom, comment on February 28, 2012.

157. Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), page 169.

158. A charge that is sometimes made against preterists is that we are guilty of the “hymenaen heresy,” which has sometimes been described as believing that the resurrection occurred before AD 70. Preterists do not believe that. See http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/1999_birks_response-sandlin.html.

159. Max R. King, The Cross and the Parousia of Christ (Warren, OH: Writing and Research Ministry, 1987). For refutations of the CBV see these articles by Edward E. Stevens: “Refuting Resurrection Errors (July 28, 2013)” and “Fruit of the Collective Body Tree (August 25, 2013)” at http://preterist.org.

160. 160. Douglas Wilkinson summarizes some of the research on the meaning of “pneuma” in his book Making Sense of the Millennium pub- lished in 2013.
Also see articles by Jerel Kratt (and others) at http://prophecyquestions. wordpress.com/2013/02/02/articles-by-charles-meek.

161. Ed Stevens points out the inconsistency of partial preterists such as Kenneth Gentry in this article: http://planetpreterist.com/content/40-year-millennium. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

162. Some preterists believe that this change was a literal rapture. Ask for articles on this subject at http://www.preterist.org..

163. See articles by Charles Meek “The Personhood View of the Resurrection” and “Salvation after AD 70” here: http://prophecyquestions.com/2013/02/02/articles-by-charles-meek.

164. Tina Rae Collins, The Gathering in the Last Days (New York: M. F. Sohn Publications, 2012), page 156.

165. Most scholars say that the writer of Hebrews was probably Paul. Both Paul (1 Corinthians 10:11) and the writer of Hebrews (Hebrews: 9:26) use the same term, “the end of the ages,” to describe the changes they were witnessing in the first century.

166. Edward E. Stevens, Questions about the Afterlife, pages 43 and 45, and Refuting Resurrection Errors, page 3.

167. A couple of Old Testament passages that relate to this covenantal promise aspect of the resurrection discussion are Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14.

168. Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc.(Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), page 22.

169. The reader is invited to examine the author’s website where there are several helpful articles about resurrection: http://prophecyquestions.com/2013/02/02/articles-by- charles-meek.

170. For those desiring a detailed examination of all passages that relate to physical versus spiritual resurrection, we recommend the discussion by Kurt Simmons: Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc. (Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), pages 93-113. See also Kurt Simmons’ website http://www.preteristcentral. com.

171. For example, Matthew Henry’s commentary on this passage says, “They shall be raised up from the dead, and awakened out of their sleep, for God will bring them with him, v 14. They then are with God, and are better where they are than when they were here; and when God comes he will bring them with him. The doctrine of the resurrection and the second coming of Christ is a great antidote against the fear of death and inordinate sorrow for the death of our Christian friends. . . . v.17. At, or immediately before, this rapture into the clouds, those who are alive will undergo a mighty change, which will be equivalent to dying. . . .” Some say that there were a couple of Catholic priests who also taught the secret rapture doctrine: Francisco Ribera (1537-1591) and Emmanuel Lacunza (1731-1801). They also were apparently the first to teach a “gap” between the 69th and 70th weeks of Daniel’s vision. It seems that they came up with the idea in order to deflect reformation fervor that claimed that the Pope was the antichrist and the Catholic Church the beast of Revelation. This idea pushed the antichrist and the beast into the future so it did not seem so likely that it was the sixteenth-century
pope/church. Morgan Edwards (1722-1785) also taught a rapture theory. Dispensationalist Thomas Ice has written about other sources that seem to support a pre-Darby rapture view: http://www.raptureready.com/featured/ice/YetAnotherPreDarbyRaptureStatement.html and http://www.raptureme.com/tt3.html.

172. Fulfilled! Magazine, Fall 2008, http://www.fulfilledcg.com/Site/Magazine/magazine_previous_issues.htm.

173. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 106.

174. N. T. Wright, Paul: In Fresh Perspective (Great Britain: First Fortress Press, 2005), pages 55-56.

175. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 145.

176. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 169.

177. Glenn L. Hill, Christianity’s Great Dilemma: Is Jesus Coming Again or Is He Not? (Lexington, KY: Moonbeam Publications, 2010), page 172.

178. For many more parallels between 1 Thessalonians 4 and other passages throughout the Bible, see Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010).

179. Samuel M. Frost has changed his views over time. He was a full preterist for some nine years and wrote from that perspective. However, as of early 2012 he was writing as a partial preterist. The citations of his views were gleaned from various writings and reports. He is an active writer and participant on Internet forums.

180. Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., Perilous Time: A Study in Eschatological Evil (Texarkana, AR: Covenant Media Press, 1999), page 100. Here is a quote from Gentry’s book: “Though he [Paul] speaks of the Second Advent just a few verses before ([in 2 Thess.] 1:10), he is not dealing with that event here [in 2 Thess. 2:1-2]. Of course, similarities exist between the Day of the Lord upon Jerusalem in AD 70 and the universal Day of the Lord at the Second Advent. The one is a temporal betokening of the other, being a distant adumbration of it. The Second Advent provides a final hope for the eternal resolution to their suffering; the A.D. 70 Day of the Lord affords an approaching temporal resolution (cf. Rev. 6:10). Orthodox scholars from each of the millennial schools agree that Christ brings these two events into close connection in the Olivet Discourse. Indeed, Christ’s disciples almost certainly confuse the two (Matt. 24:3). The same connection seems to exist here as well.” Of this position Duncan McKenzie commented, “Gentry is forced into this far-fetched position because 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10 is talking about the judgment (which Gentry says is still future) while 2:1 is talking about the AD 70 gathering of God’s people (cf. Matt. 24:29-34), which Gentry correctly believes is AD 70.”

181. To be more precise, the word in 2 Thessalonians 1:10 is elthe, a derivative of erchomai.

182. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 345.

183. For further analysis of Dr. Gentry’s writings see Don K. Preston, D. Div. The Elements Shall Melt with Fervent Heat: A Study of 2 Peter 3 (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Productions LLC, 2006), pages 223-224. Also, Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 337f. In these works, Preston details other inconsistencies in Dr. Gentry’s writings.

184. “The” precedes (modifies) parousia in these instances: 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1. “His” precedes (modifies) parousia in these instances: 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. “Whose” precedes (modifies) parousia in this instance: 2 Thessalonians 2:19. Erchomai is used in 1 Thessalonians 5:2 and 2 Thessalonians 1:10.

185. Examples of this can be found in Michael Sullivan’s writings in House Divided. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009).

186. Samuel M. Frost, Why I Left Full Preterism (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision Press), pages 78-80.

187. There are at least two books that are helpful in demonstrating that the writings of notable Reformed opponents of full preterism (namely Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., Keith A. Mathison, R. C. Sproul, Jr., Charles E. Hill, Richard L. Pratt, Jr., Simon J. Kistemaker, Douglas Wilson, Robert Strimple, and others) are at key points inconsistent, arbitrary, and even contrary to the creeds. We believe that these books leave the arguments of these men in shambles: (1) David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009). (2) Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc. (Preterism.info Publishing, 2010). Also see these articles:

(1) Response to Gentry’s Analysis of the Full Preterist View (Edward E. Stevens, editor) online at

http://www.preterist.org/articles-old/gentry/response_index.htm

(2) “The Arbitrary Principle of Hyper-Creedalism” (by David A. Green), online at

http://preteristcosmos.com/arbitrary-gentry.html.

188. Edward E. Stevens, Expectations Demand a First Century Rapture. Available at the International Preterist Association, http://www.preterist.org/preteristbookstore.asp.

189. See Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 274-309.

190. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_of_Jesus_in_Christian_art.

191. Source: http://www.charlescoty.com/user/In%20Like%20 Manner%20-%20Acts%201.11%20-%20Joseph%20Vincent.pdf.

192. From http://www.quodlibet.net/articles/otto-sproul.shtml. Randall E. Otto has also written a book entitled Coming in the Clouds: An Evangelical Case for the Invisibility of Christ at His Second Coming (University Press of America, 1994).

193. Milton S. Terry, Biblical Apocalyptics, 1898, note 34. Note: We have cleaned up the language of this quote a bit to put it in modern English, and added the bold emphasis. The entire book is available here: http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1898_terry_apocalyptics.html.

194. From this source: http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com.

195. The Reformation Study Bible, (Lake Mary, Florida: Ligonier Ministries, 2005), page 1741.

196. http://www.gotquestions.org/twelve-tribes-Israel.html.

197. Edward E. Stevens in the foreword to: J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming, (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003), originally published in 1878, page xii. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

198. http://www.preteristcentral.com/The%20Resurrection%20of%20the%20Flesh.html.

199. “The ‘End Times’ A Study on Eschatology and Millennialism,” A Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, September 1989. This 65 page document, which is from a major conservative denomination, does an excellent job of explaining the various eschatological positions. The interested reader can find the document online via a Google search.

200. Ibid, page 19.

201. Ibid, page 33.

202. Glenn L. Hill, Christianity’s Great Dilemma: Is Jesus Coming Again or Is He Not? (Lexington, KY: Moonbeam Publications, 2010), page 131.

203. For an alternative view supporting physical death at the Fall, see Ed Stevens, “What Kind of Death?” Mr. Stevens can be contacted at http://www.preterist.org..

204. “The ‘End Times’ A Study on Eschatology and Millennialism,” A Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, September 1989, p. 45.

205. We do not see the physical body as evil, like the Gnostics. We only see human beings as the Bible describes us, and as observations confirm—sinful.

206. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imputed_righteousness.

207. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democide. Dinesh D’Souza in his book What’s So Great about Christianity shows that crimes supposedly committed by  Christians, such as the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem Witch trials, were much smaller than generally supposed. Any such crimes committed by professing Christians were committed contrary to the principles of Christianity, while similar crimes committed by atheistic/communistic regimes can be shown to be consistent with their Darwinian model.

208. Samuel M. Frost, Why I Left Full Preterism (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision Press, 2012), page 62.

209. Ibid, page 47.

210. http://www.andrewcorbett.net/articles/lion-lamb/index. See also http://ontimejournal.com/every-knee-bow-every-tongue-confess. html.

211. Here is where we find Parousia associated with Jesus: Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Corinthians 15:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8; James 5:7, 8; 2 Peter 1:16; 3:4; 1 John 2:28. See http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?trongs=G3952&t=KJV. See also this article: http://www.verumserum.com/the-return-ofchrist/eschatological-word-studies#toc-three-greek-words-for-the-return.

212. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 545.

213. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 87.

214. Some full preterists also question the statement in the Nicene Creed that says, “I look for the resurrection of the dead.” While every full preterist agrees that those believers who have not yet died will be resurrected in the future, this statement implies that the general resurrection is yet future. Full preterists believe that the general resurrection happened in AD 70.

215. http://beyondtheendtimes.com/writing/articles/k_davies/k_davies_responses/fals_wit_math.html.

216. Spoken at the Covenant Eschatology Symposium in Florida 1993: http://preterist.org, http://www.preteristarchive.com/StudyArchive/s/sproul-rc_sr.html.

217. See
http://www.preterist.org/articles/what_about_creeds.asp
http://planetpreterist.com/content/resurrected-body-jesus-
christ-edited-walt-hibbard
http://preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.
htm
http://beyondtheendtimes.com/writing/articles/k_davies/k_davies_
responses/fals_wit_math.html.

218. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 13. This source in turn quoted Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2009), 185.

219. Daniel E. Harden, Overcoming Sproul’s Resurrection Obstacles (Bradford, PA: IPA Publishers, 1999), page 21. The error of elasticizing the time statements can be traced to three sources in the mid-second century: Justin Martyr, Shepherd of Hermas, and 2nd Clement. See Edward E. Stevens, Questions about the Afterlife (Bradford, PA: International Preterist Association, 1999), page 13.

220. This famous statement by Luther appears in various slightly different formulations. See:

Also see Edward E. Stevens’ article, “What If the Creeds Are Wrong?”: http://www.preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.htm.

221. Don K. Preston, We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 274ff.

222. First quote from: Proof of the Gospel, Book VI, Chapter 13, paragraph 18. Second quote from: Proof of the Gospel, Book VIII, Chapter 4, paragraph 147). Eusebius’ works are laborious. He may have been lumping Jesus’ first and second advents together to affirm fulfillment, in particular, of the events of the Olivet Discourse. Eusebius did affirm the Nicene Creed, but was apparently concerned primarily with the Divinity of Christ aspect of the Creed rather than the Parousia.(See http://www.earlychurchtexts.com/public/eusebius_letter_to_his_church_about_nicaea.htm). But we can confidently conclude that his numerous statements throughout his writings about a first century fulfillment of prophesied events confirm his preterist orientation. The reader is also referred back to Chapter 1, endnote number 25 for more places in Eusebius’ writings that confirm his preterist views.

223. Don K. Preston, We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 286-295. See also these various references: (1) David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), pages 38-43. (2) Gary DeMar and Francis X. Gumerlock, The Early Church and the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006). (3) Samuel M. Frost, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (Colorado Springs, CO: Bimillennial Press, 2006), page 151. (4) Living the Question website article “Historic Preterist Quotes”: http://livingthequestion.org/historic-quotes. The Bible teaches that speaking
in tongues would cease when “completion” came (1 Corinthians 13:8-10).

224. See Edward E. Stevens http://www.preterist.org/preteristQA.asp#question7. Josephus Wars (6.5.3.296 to 300), Tacitus Histories (Book 5), Eusebius Ecclesiastical History (Book 3 Chapter 8 Sections 1-6), Sepher Yosippon A Mediaeval History of Ancient Israel (Chapter 87, “Burning of the Temple”). See also http://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Second_Coming_of_Jesus_Christ.

225. See Covenant Theological Seminary online course “Ancient and Medieval Church History” at this link: http://www.worldwide-classroom.com/. Another source is David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), pages 45-47. See also this article by Riley O’Brien Powell: http://livingthequestion.org/church-error/.

226. James B. Jordan, Biblical Chronology, “Problems with New Testament History, “Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan. 1993, p. 1. Quoted by Edward E. Stevens in this article “What if the Creeds Are Wrong”: http://preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.htm.

227. The question of how to define heresy is an interesting one. Samuel M. Frost, when he was a full preterist, had some thoughts on this: “What then is a heretic? In my understanding, a heretic is one who seeks to destroy the fabric of the church by infiltration. The modus operandi is destruction. . . . Joseph Smith was a heretic by proclaiming the Mormons to be the one and only truly restored church. . . . Heretics, by and large, use either false prophecy, or some extra revelation. They deny the central tenets of the Christian faith, the nature of God, the divinity of Christ, or make man into a god of some sort. . . . Preterists hardly have the desire to subvert, manipulate, or destroy the church. Rather, seeking God’s word above all else, fulfilled prophecy thrives in that community with the purpose of strengthening the body through correcting what it sees as misapprehensions from our forefathers. . . . “ Samuel M. Frost, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (Colorado Springs, CO: Bimillennial Press, 2006), page 48.

228. http://www.preterist.org/articles/article08-21-01.asp. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

229. http://www.wix.com/edwhynotme/fandd#!articles.

230. Gary DeMar stated that Justin Martyr and Papias were the only two early church fathers who could be classified as premillennial during the earliest decades of the 2nd century. See Gary DeMar (and Francis X. Gumerlock), The Early Church and the End of the Word (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision, 2006), Chapter 4. DeMar also points out that while Papias (died c. AD 155) is often a favorite church father of premillennialists, the claims that Papias got his views from the apostles is a shaky claim. Papias probably got his information second or third hand. Eusebius was highly critical of Papias’ premillennial views (Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 39: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250103.htm). DeMar also argues that the sources for Justin Martyr’s premillennialism are questionable. Gumerlock, in the same book (page 99), quotes Augustine as giving alternate interpretations for the
Second Coming, including that it could refer to a coming of “Christ to the Church” in a continuous sense, or to a bodily return to earth at the end of history. Gumerlock quotes others throughout church history that saw the Second Coming as non-bodily.

231. David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation, (Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 1987), page 494.

232. See the writings of Samuel M. Frost.

233. Alan Patrick Boyd, “A Dispensational Premillennial Analysis of the Eschatology of the Post-Apostolic Fathers (until the Death of Justin Martyr),” Th. M. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1977. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday,  and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted in 1989, page 114. See also Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), Chapter 1. See also See Gary DeMar (and Francis X. Gumerlock), The Early Church and the End of the Word (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision, 2006), Chapter 4.

234. There seems to be some doubt or debate about exactly what was agreed upon at these ancient councils, especially at the Council of Ephesus. Apparently the reports of condemnations of millennialism at these councils are from secondary sources. But it does seem clear that Augustine thought that millennialism was a superstition, and his thoughts were accepted as authoritative. This seems to be confirmed by the Nicene Creed. The Italian abbot Joachim of Fiore (c. 1130-1202) revived chiliasm for a time.

235. From “American Lutheran Views on Eschatology and How They Related to the American Protestants” by John M. Brenner.

236. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (3.25.5).

237. See Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000). One can also find various lists of historic false prophets on the Internet, such as these websites:
http://www.abhota.info/index.htm
http://www.ministryserver.com/rwsr/Part01_Introduction.htm
http://americanvision.org/4545/before-harold-camping-therewas-chuck-smith
http://publisherscorner.nordskogpublishing.com/2009/01/is-it-time-for-doomsday-or-for-building.html.

The interested reader can search for more such sites in the Internet.

238. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Nelson_Darby.

239. We are especially indebted to the authors of this book: Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985, reprinted 1989). We draw from chapters 5, 8, 14, and 16. This book is considered by some to be authoritative concerning dispensationalism. Both were pastors in Presbyterian churches at the time of the writing of their book. Crenshaw is a graduate of Dallas Theological Seminary. Both authors were dispensationalists for more than 30 years. Neither author is a preterist, but presumably were amillennialists at the time of the writing of the book. We also used a summary from an online source http://www.gotquestions.org, as well as other sources. Another very helpful book is by Gary DeMar, End Times Fiction: a Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers).

240. John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Chicago: Moody Press, 1966).

241. We credit this book for help with this outline: Robert A. Peterson and Michael D. Williams, Why I Am Not an Arminian (Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, 2004). We also recommend the this book for the opposing view: Jerry L. Walls and Joseph R. Dongell, Why I Am Not a Calvinist (Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, 2004).

242. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985, reprinted 1989).

243. The term “Reformed” is often understood as a synonym for Calvinist. Calvinists are most often found in Presbyterian churches but also increasingly in some Baptist and some Bible churches. Calvinists emphasize God’s election. Lutherans hold to similar beliefs, emphasizing salvation by grace through the work of the Holy Spirit. But Lutherans believe, unlike Calvinists, that salvation is potentially for all who believe (not just those predestined to believe), and they also believe that man can turn away from faith (rather than “once saved always saved”). Arminians in the modern church are represented by Methodists and some Baptists/Bible churches, and teach salvation by grace but emphasize man’s free will to accept God’s gift of grace. Catholics believe that we are saved by grace infused with works and sacrament. Semi-Pelagians take a further step towards works righteousness, believing that we are saved by grace plus works, and may be found in various sects including some Churches of Christ. Full-Pelagians believe that we are saved by our good works only. Both semi-Pelagians and full-Pelagians are considered legalists, and we consider legalism outside the circle of orthodoxy on matters of justification. At best, semi-Pelagians are on the edge of the circle of orthodoxy, depending on how they understand grace. (It is contradictory and not adequately biblical to say we are saved by grace, but here is a list of things that one has to do to be saved. . . .)

244. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted 1989, pages 404-405.

245. There is much confusion on the doctrine of man’s sinful nature. Theologians make a distinction between “total depravity” and “utter depravity.” Utter depravity would mean that man can do no good whatsoever. Christianity does not teach utter depravity, but rather teaches that man is totally depraved, which means that every aspect of his life is touched by sin. Orthodox Christianity does not teach that man can do no good at all in any sense.

246. http://dispensationalist.blogspot.com/2012/05/what-about-esther-817.html.

247. The Ashkenazi Jews may not be descended from Abraham.

248. See the book by Don K. Preston, Israel 1948: Countdown to No
Where.

249. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted 1989, page 106.

250. Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma:
JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), page 326.

251. There is apparently a movement within the dispensational camp to modernize and correct its theology at key points, as explained in this article by Kenneth L. Gentry entitled “Recent Developments in the Eschatological Debate”: http://www.reformationonline.com/debate.htm.

252. Here is an excellent article about our hope: http://preteristvoice.org/Fun12.html, and an article about contemplating heaven: http://www.conversiondiary.com/2013/07/how-to-think-about-the-afterlife-hint-you-cant-because-you-live-in-flatland.html.

253. David Green is editor of The Preterist Cosmos: http://www.preteristcosmos.com.

254. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of
Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist
Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), pages 551-552.

255. Wording in this section is from this source: http://www.prophecyrefi.org/release_95-theses.htm.

256. We are grateful to John Noe for some of the wording of this section. We found his article on the Internet: http://planetpreterist.com/content/only-defense-major-case-against-christ-christianity-and-bible.

257. David Green is editor of The Preterist Cosmos as well as editor of this book. See http://www.preteristcosmos.com.

258. Tina Rae Collins, The Gathering in the Last Days (New York: M.
F. Sohn Publications, 2012), page 157.

259. http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/church-practice/quitting-church.php. This site has several thought-provoking articles about ecclesiology: http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/index.php.

260. See the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy: http://www.theopedia.com/Chicago_Statement_on_Biblical_Inerrancy.

261. See these articles about the shocking decline of Christianity in America:
•  http://endoftheamericandream.com/archives/how-will-the-shocking-decline-of-christianity-in-america-affect-the-future-of-this-nation

http://www.barna.org/teens-next-gen-articles/528-six-reasonsyoung-christians-leave-church

http://marc5solas.com/2013/02/08/top-10-reasons-our-kids-leave-church/

http://www.gotquestions.org/falling-away.html.

262. Paul does not always give an apologetic with the gospel. Paul’s
model teaches us to be discerning about who our audience is and to
mold our message accordingly (1 Corinthians 9:16-23). We favor evidentiary classical apologetics over presuppositional apologetics. Sproul and Gerstner adequately discredited presuppositional apologetics, a fad in some Reformed circles. See R. C. Sproul, John Gerstner, and Arthur Lindsley, Classical Apologetics: A Rational Defense of the Christian Faith and a Critique of Presuppositional Apologetics, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984). See a website of the author for helpful apologetic material: http://www.faithfacts.org.

263. See http://www.faithfacts.org/bible-101/christian-cram-course#trinity.

264. See http://www.faithfacts.org/search-for-truth.

265. “Nominalism” is dead, inactive Christianity. “Antinomianism” is the idea that moral law does not apply to the Christian’s salvation or life. Together, nominalism and antinomianism combine to produce easy believism. “Fideism” is the unbiblical view that faith and reason are incompatible. That is, Christianity is true because we believe it, rather than we believe it because it is objectively true. The Christian faith is unique among religions, as it is based on evidence, and thus is not blind faith. See http://www.faithfacts.org.

266. For definitions of these terms, see the endnote above earlier in this chapter. We specifically reject semi-Pelagianism and full-Pelagianism.

267. Used with permission. Source: David Green, http://www.preteristcosmos.com/preterism101.html.

268. See Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000). One can also find various lists of historic false prophets on the Internet, such as these websites:
http://www.abhota.info/index.htm,
http://www.ministryserver.com/rwsr/Part01_Introduction.htm
http://americanvision.org/4545/before-harold-camping-therewas-chuck-smith/
http://publisherscorner.nordskogpublishing.com/2009/01/is-it-time-for-doomsday-or-for-building.html.

The interested reader can search for more such sites in the Internet.

269. See http://www.treeoflifeministries.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=198%3Amike-sullivan&catid=35%3Apreterist-eschatology-all-prophecy-fulfilled-by-ad-70&Itemid=77.

270. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming, (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), pages 344, 346.

271. See also: http://www.biblicalpreteristarchive.com/statements/70-Qs.htm. (Many of our questions came from this source.)

272. The passages that are often given to prove that the soul survives the body include: Luke 16:22-26; 23:43; Philippians 1:21-23; 2 Corinthians 5:8; Revelation 6:9-11; 20:4, 14; 21:8. But even John Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI) said this: “The immortality of the soul must be firmly rejected as an idea which goes against the grain of biblical thought.” (Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), page 74.) Ratzinger also stated concerning the duality of soul and body, “. . . the work of Thomas and the Council of Vienne, has conceived this duality in such a way that it is not dualistic but rather brings to light the worth and unity of the human being as a whole.” (Ibid, page 159)

273. Here’s a smattering of articles we found on the Internet:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_in_the_Bible
http://www.ucg.org/death/what-does-bible-say-about-immortal-soul/
http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/death/is-the-soul-immortal.php
http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/death/life-in-christ/chapter8.php

274. The Reformation Study Bible (Lake Mary, Florida: Ligonier Ministries,
2005), page 1743.