Endnotes 138-274 (Christian Hope)

138. Partial preterist/postmillennialist Gary DeMar said, emphasizing his postmillennialism: “The only signs that are yet to be fulfilled are the discipleship of the nations and Jesus putting all His enemies under His feet.” See DeMar, Gary, End Times Fiction: A Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2001), page 214.

139. Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), pages 101, 103.

140. See Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), Section lll.

141. Annihilationism seems to be gaining adherents in the church as some well respected scholars are proponents of this view. An In- ternet site that has some good articles on this view is the “Death and Immortality” section of http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/ index.php.

142. Scholars who hold to annihilationism believe either that hell means instant destruction to the damned, or that the damned may reside in hell for a period of time before their ultimate destruction. Annihilationism seems to be gaining adherents in the church as some well respected scholars are proponents of this view. An Internet site that has some good articles on this view is the “Death and Immortality” section of http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/index.php.  Here is a link to a lecture on the subject by a well-known proponent Edward Fudge: http://vimeo.com/30967402 . Fudge is a major proponent of annihilationism and has written books on the subject, notably The Fire that Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment. The reader can also check out Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An
Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD
Press, 2009), Section lll. Here is another link for study: http://robertwr.com/. For a defense of eternal conscious punishment, see Hell on Trial by Robert A. Peterson.

143. Actually, it does seem doubtful that most Christians, who claim to hold to eternal conscious punishment, really do believe in it. If they really believed in it, they would be much for active in their evangelism effort. One study suggested that only 2% of Christians ever share their faith! If they really thought the non-believers around them were destined to burn in hell forever, they would be constantly evangelizing!

144. Paul in 1 Corinthians 7 confirms that those married should remain married.

145. Source: http://www.reformedonline.com.

146. The Greek word is mello (Strong’s G3195). Futurists sometimes object to the translation “about to.” Indeed, most Bible versions translate mello as “will” and thus do not have the imminency connotation. However, the online Blue Letter Bible lexicon states that the biblical usage of the word is “to be about, to be on the point of doing or suffering something, or to intend, have in mind, think to.” So while there are different potential translations, the context determines that “about to” is a good and reasonable rendering such that this passage and others like it are consistent with the numerous other imminency passages. The imminency connotation is clear in Young’s Literal Translation which one can access online at such sites as Bible Gateway. This translation is confirmed by these other sources: Vine’s Theological Dictionary, Thayer’s Greek/English Lexicon, The Analytical Greek Lexicon, Bauer-Arndt-Gingrich, Second Edition, and Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. The following is an article by Parker Voll about this word: Fulfilled! Magazine, Spring 2012 (pages 12, 13, 18): http://www.fulfilledcg.com/Site/Magazine/magazine_previous_issues.htm, pages 12, 13, 18.

147. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in the Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 174. For clarification, Preston does believe that the general resurrection occurred in AD 70, but does not believe it was the “physically dead being raised out of the dirt.”

148. http://beatenbrains.blogspot.com.au/2006/08/eschatology-of-being-born-again.html.

149. Those who expect a fleshly physical body in the resurrection cite Job 19:25-26. According to Kurt Simmons, “This is the only verse in the Bible that makes reference to the flesh in apparent connection with the resurrection. However, the Hebrew of this verse is so obscure and ambiguous that scholars cannot decide how it is to be translated.” See Kurt M. Simmons, “The Resurrection of the Flesh.”

150. For supplementary material on resurrection, see the author’s articles at https://prophecyquestions.wordpress.com/2013/02/02/articles- by-charles-meek.

151. Interestingly, Adam was not even the first person to die in the Bible. Abel holds that distinction. The primary objection to the idea that the Fall was only a spiritual event is that Genesis 3 speaks of physical things, such as the pain of childbirth, and also that the ground itself was cursed. But it should be pointed out that the text only states that the pain of childbirth would be multiplied, which clearly implies that such pain existed before the Fall.

152. Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), page 157.

153. http://www.preterist.org/articles/answering_mathison.asp.

154. These young earth creationists also teach that even though predator animals like lions had teeth specifically made for killing and eating meat, they only ate vegetable matter at first. For information about the old earth viewpoint, go to http://www.reasons.org and search for “Animal Death before the Fall.” There you should find an article by Lee Irons, as well as other interesting material.

155. Samuel G. Dawson, Essays on Eschatology: An Introductory Overview of the Study of Last Things (Amarillo, Texas: SGD Press, 2009), page 159-160.

156. From the PretCosmos Yahoo chatroom, comment on February 28, 2012.

157. Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), page 169.

158. A charge that is sometimes made against preterists is that we are guilty of the “hymenaen heresy,” which has sometimes been described as believing that the resurrection occurred before AD 70. Preterists do not believe that. See http://www.preteristarchive.com/Hyper/1999_birks_response-sandlin.html.

159. Max R. King, The Cross and the Parousia of Christ (Warren, OH: Writing and Research Ministry, 1987). For refutations of the CBV see these articles by Edward E. Stevens: “Refuting Resurrection Errors (July 28, 2013)” and “Fruit of the Collective Body Tree (August 25, 2013)” at http://preterist.org.

160. 160. Douglas Wilkinson summarizes some of the research on the meaning of “pneuma” in his book Making Sense of the Millennium pub- lished in 2013.
Also see articles by Jerel Kratt (and others) at http://prophecyquestions. wordpress.com/2013/02/02/articles-by-charles-meek.

161. Ed Stevens points out the inconsistency of partial preterists such as Kenneth Gentry in this article: http://planetpreterist.com/content/40-year-millennium. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

162. Some preterists believe that this change was a literal rapture. Ask for articles on this subject at http://www.preterist.org..

163. See articles by Charles Meek “The Personhood View of the Resurrection” and “Salvation after AD 70” here: https://prophecyquestions.wordpress.com/2013/02/02/articles-by-charles-meek.

164. Tina Rae Collins, The Gathering in the Last Days (New York: M. F. Sohn Publications, 2012), page 156.

165. Most scholars say that the writer of Hebrews was probably Paul. Both Paul (1 Corinthians 10:11) and the writer of Hebrews (Hebrews: 9:26) use the same term, “the end of the ages,” to describe the changes they were witnessing in the first century.

166. Edward E. Stevens, Questions about the Afterlife, pages 43 and 45, and Refuting Resurrection Errors, page 3.

167. A couple of Old Testament passages that relate to this covenantal promise aspect of the resurrection discussion are Isaiah 25:8 and Hosea 13:14.

168. Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc.(Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), page 22.

169. The reader is invited to examine the author’s website where there are several helpful articles about resurrection: https://prophecyquestions.wordpress.com/2013/02/02/articles-by- charles-meek.

170. For those desiring a detailed examination of all passages that relate to physical versus spiritual resurrection, we recommend the discussion by Kurt Simmons: Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc. (Preterism.info Publishing, 2010), pages 93-113. See also Kurt Simmons’ website http://www.preteristcentral. com.

171. For example, Matthew Henry’s commentary on this passage says, “They shall be raised up from the dead, and awakened out of their sleep, for God will bring them with him, v 14. They then are with God, and are better where they are than when they were here; and when God comes he will bring them with him. The doctrine of the resurrection and the second coming of Christ is a great antidote against the fear of death and inordinate sorrow for the death of our Christian friends. . . . v.17. At, or immediately before, this rapture into the clouds, those who are alive will undergo a mighty change, which will be equivalent to dying. . . .” Some say that there were a couple of Catholic priests who also taught the secret rapture doctrine: Francisco Ribera (1537-1591) and Emmanuel Lacunza (1731-1801). They also were apparently the first to teach a “gap” between the 69th and 70th weeks of Daniel’s vision. It seems that they came up with the idea in order to deflect reformation fervor that claimed that the Pope was the antichrist and the Catholic Church the beast of Revelation. This idea pushed the antichrist and the beast into the future so it did not seem so likely that it was the sixteenth-century
pope/church. Morgan Edwards (1722-1785) also taught a rapture theory. Dispensationalist Thomas Ice has written about other sources that seem to support a pre-Darby rapture view: http://www.raptureready.com/featured/ice/YetAnotherPreDarbyRaptureStatement.html and http://www.raptureme.com/tt3.html.

172. Fulfilled! Magazine, Fall 2008, http://www.fulfilledcg.com/Site/Magazine/magazine_previous_issues.htm.

173. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 106.

174. N. T. Wright, Paul: In Fresh Perspective (Great Britain: First Fortress Press, 2005), pages 55-56.

175. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 145.

176. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 169.

177. Glenn L. Hill, Christianity’s Great Dilemma: Is Jesus Coming Again or Is He Not? (Lexington, KY: Moonbeam Publications, 2010), page 172.

178. For many more parallels between 1 Thessalonians 4 and other passages throughout the Bible, see Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010).

179. Samuel M. Frost has changed his views over time. He was a full preterist for some nine years and wrote from that perspective. However, as of early 2012 he was writing as a partial preterist. The citations of his views were gleaned from various writings and reports. He is an active writer and participant on Internet forums.

180. Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., Perilous Time: A Study in Eschatological Evil (Texarkana, AR: Covenant Media Press, 1999), page 100. Here is a quote from Gentry’s book: “Though he [Paul] speaks of the Second Advent just a few verses before ([in 2 Thess.] 1:10), he is not dealing with that event here [in 2 Thess. 2:1-2]. Of course, similarities exist between the Day of the Lord upon Jerusalem in AD 70 and the universal Day of the Lord at the Second Advent. The one is a temporal betokening of the other, being a distant adumbration of it. The Second Advent provides a final hope for the eternal resolution to their suffering; the A.D. 70 Day of the Lord affords an approaching temporal resolution (cf. Rev. 6:10). Orthodox scholars from each of the millennial schools agree that Christ brings these two events into close connection in the Olivet Discourse. Indeed, Christ’s disciples almost certainly confuse the two (Matt. 24:3). The same connection seems to exist here as well.” Of this position Duncan McKenzie commented, “Gentry is forced into this far-fetched position because 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10 is talking about the judgment (which Gentry says is still future) while 2:1 is talking about the AD 70 gathering of God’s people (cf. Matt. 24:29-34), which Gentry correctly believes is AD 70.”

181. To be more precise, the word in 2 Thessalonians 1:10 is elthe, a derivative of erchomai.

182. Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 345.

183. For further analysis of Dr. Gentry’s writings see Don K. Preston, D. Div. The Elements Shall Melt with Fervent Heat: A Study of 2 Peter 3 (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Productions LLC, 2006), pages 223-224. Also, Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), page 337f. In these works, Preston details other inconsistencies in Dr. Gentry’s writings.

184. “The” precedes (modifies) parousia in these instances: 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1. “His” precedes (modifies) parousia in these instances: 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 2 Thessalonians 2:8. “Whose” precedes (modifies) parousia in this instance: 2 Thessalonians 2:19. Erchomai is used in 1 Thessalonians 5:2 and 2 Thessalonians 1:10.

185. Examples of this can be found in Michael Sullivan’s writings in House Divided. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009).

186. Samuel M. Frost, Why I Left Full Preterism (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision Press), pages 78-80.

187. There are at least two books that are helpful in demonstrating that the writings of notable Reformed opponents of full preterism (namely Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., Keith A. Mathison, R. C. Sproul, Jr., Charles E. Hill, Richard L. Pratt, Jr., Simon J. Kistemaker, Douglas Wilson, Robert Strimple, and others) are at key points inconsistent, arbitrary, and even contrary to the creeds. We believe that these books leave the arguments of these men in shambles: (1) David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009). (2) Michael A. Fenemore and Kurt M. Simmons, The Twilight of Postmillennialism; Fatal Errors in the Teachings of Keith A. Mathison, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr. etc. (Preterism.info Publishing, 2010). Also see these articles:

(1) Response to Gentry’s Analysis of the Full Preterist View (Edward E. Stevens, editor) online at

http://www.preterist.org/articles-old/gentry/response_index.htm

(2) “The Arbitrary Principle of Hyper-Creedalism” (by David A. Green), online at

http://preteristcosmos.com/arbitrary-gentry.html.

188. Edward E. Stevens, Expectations Demand a First Century Rapture. Available at the International Preterist Association, http://www.preterist.org/preteristbookstore.asp.

189. See Don K. Preston D. Div., We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 274-309.

190. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_of_Jesus_in_Christian_art.

191. Source: http://www.charlescoty.com/user/In%20Like%20 Manner%20-%20Acts%201.11%20-%20Joseph%20Vincent.pdf.

192. From http://www.quodlibet.net/articles/otto-sproul.shtml. Randall E. Otto has also written a book entitled Coming in the Clouds: An Evangelical Case for the Invisibility of Christ at His Second Coming (University Press of America, 1994).

193. Milton S. Terry, Biblical Apocalyptics, 1898, note 34. Note: We have cleaned up the language of this quote a bit to put it in modern English, and added the bold emphasis. The entire book is available here: http://www.preteristarchive.com/Books/1898_terry_apocalyptics.html.

194. From this source: http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com.

195. The Reformation Study Bible, (Lake Mary, Florida: Ligonier Ministries, 2005), page 1741.

196. http://www.gotquestions.org/twelve-tribes-Israel.html.

197. Edward E. Stevens in the foreword to: J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming, (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003), originally published in 1878, page xii. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

198. http://www.preteristcentral.com/The%20Resurrection%20of%20the%20Flesh.html.

199. “The ‘End Times’ A Study on Eschatology and Millennialism,” A Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, September 1989. This 65 page document, which is from a major conservative denomination, does an excellent job of explaining the various eschatological positions. The interested reader can find the document online via a Google search.

200. Ibid, page 19.

201. Ibid, page 33.

202. Glenn L. Hill, Christianity’s Great Dilemma: Is Jesus Coming Again or Is He Not? (Lexington, KY: Moonbeam Publications, 2010), page 131.

203. For an alternative view supporting physical death at the Fall, see Ed Stevens, “What Kind of Death?” Mr. Stevens can be contacted at http://www.preterist.org..

204. “The ‘End Times’ A Study on Eschatology and Millennialism,” A Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations of The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, September 1989, p. 45.

205. We do not see the physical body as evil, like the Gnostics. We only see human beings as the Bible describes us, and as observations confirm—sinful.

206. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imputed_righteousness.

207. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democide. Dinesh D’Souza in his book What’s So Great about Christianity shows that crimes supposedly committed by  Christians, such as the Spanish Inquisition and the Salem Witch trials, were much smaller than generally supposed. Any such crimes committed by professing Christians were committed contrary to the principles of Christianity, while similar crimes committed by atheistic/communistic regimes can be shown to be consistent with their Darwinian model.

208. Samuel M. Frost, Why I Left Full Preterism (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision Press, 2012), page 62.

209. Ibid, page 47.

210. http://www.andrewcorbett.net/articles/lion-lamb/index. See also http://ontimejournal.com/every-knee-bow-every-tongue-confess. html.

211. Here is where we find Parousia associated with Jesus: Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Corinthians 15:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8; James 5:7, 8; 2 Peter 1:16; 3:4; 1 John 2:28. See http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?trongs=G3952&t=KJV. See also this article: http://www.verumserum.com/the-return-ofchrist/eschatological-word-studies#toc-three-greek-words-for-the-return.

212. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), page 545.

213. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 87.

214. Some full preterists also question the statement in the Nicene Creed that says, “I look for the resurrection of the dead.” While every full preterist agrees that those believers who have not yet died will be resurrected in the future, this statement implies that the general resurrection is yet future. Full preterists believe that the general resurrection happened in AD 70.

215. http://beyondtheendtimes.com/writing/articles/k_davies/k_davies_responses/fals_wit_math.html.

216. Spoken at the Covenant Eschatology Symposium in Florida 1993: http://preterist.org, http://www.preteristarchive.com/StudyArchive/s/sproul-rc_sr.html.

217. See
http://www.preterist.org/articles/what_about_creeds.asp
http://planetpreterist.com/content/resurrected-body-jesus-
christ-edited-walt-hibbard
http://preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.
htm
http://beyondtheendtimes.com/writing/articles/k_davies/k_davies_
responses/fals_wit_math.html.

218. David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), page 13. This source in turn quoted Roland H. Bainton, Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2009), 185.

219. Daniel E. Harden, Overcoming Sproul’s Resurrection Obstacles (Bradford, PA: IPA Publishers, 1999), page 21. The error of elasticizing the time statements can be traced to three sources in the mid-second century: Justin Martyr, Shepherd of Hermas, and 2nd Clement. See Edward E. Stevens, Questions about the Afterlife (Bradford, PA: International Preterist Association, 1999), page 13.

220. This famous statement by Luther appears in various slightly different formulations. See:

Also see Edward E. Stevens’ article, “What If the Creeds Are Wrong?”: http://www.preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.htm.

221. Don K. Preston, We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 274ff.

222. First quote from: Proof of the Gospel, Book VI, Chapter 13, paragraph 18. Second quote from: Proof of the Gospel, Book VIII, Chapter 4, paragraph 147). Eusebius’ works are laborious. He may have been lumping Jesus’ first and second advents together to affirm fulfillment, in particular, of the events of the Olivet Discourse. Eusebius did affirm the Nicene Creed, but was apparently concerned primarily with the Divinity of Christ aspect of the Creed rather than the Parousia.(See http://www.earlychurchtexts.com/public/eusebius_letter_to_his_church_about_nicaea.htm). But we can confidently conclude that his numerous statements throughout his writings about a first century fulfillment of prophesied events confirm his preterist orientation. The reader is also referred back to Chapter 1, endnote number 25 for more places in Eusebius’ writings that confirm his preterist views.

223. Don K. Preston, We Shall Meet Him in The Air: The Wedding of the King of Kings (Ardmore, Oklahoma: JaDon Management Inc., 2010), pages 286-295. See also these various references: (1) David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), pages 38-43. (2) Gary DeMar and Francis X. Gumerlock, The Early Church and the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2006). (3) Samuel M. Frost, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (Colorado Springs, CO: Bimillennial Press, 2006), page 151. (4) Living the Question website article “Historic Preterist Quotes”: http://livingthequestion.org/historic-quotes. The Bible teaches that speaking
in tongues would cease when “completion” came (1 Corinthians 13:8-10).

224. See Edward E. Stevens http://www.preterist.org/preteristQA.asp#question7. Josephus Wars (6.5.3.296 to 300), Tacitus Histories (Book 5), Eusebius Ecclesiastical History (Book 3 Chapter 8 Sections 1-6), Sepher Yosippon A Mediaeval History of Ancient Israel (Chapter 87, “Burning of the Temple”). See also http://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Second_Coming_of_Jesus_Christ.

225. See Covenant Theological Seminary online course “Ancient and Medieval Church History” at this link: http://www.worldwide-classroom.com/. Another source is David Green, Michael Sullivan, Edward Hassertt, Samuel Frost, House Divided: Bridging the Gap in Reformed Eschatology, A Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Romana, CA: Vision Publishing, 2009), pages 45-47. See also this article by Riley O’Brien Powell: http://livingthequestion.org/church-error/.

226. James B. Jordan, Biblical Chronology, “Problems with New Testament History, “Vol. 5, No. 1, Jan. 1993, p. 1. Quoted by Edward E. Stevens in this article “What if the Creeds Are Wrong”: http://preterist.org/articles-old/what_if_the_creeds_are_wrong.htm.

227. The question of how to define heresy is an interesting one. Samuel M. Frost, when he was a full preterist, had some thoughts on this: “What then is a heretic? In my understanding, a heretic is one who seeks to destroy the fabric of the church by infiltration. The modus operandi is destruction. . . . Joseph Smith was a heretic by proclaiming the Mormons to be the one and only truly restored church. . . . Heretics, by and large, use either false prophecy, or some extra revelation. They deny the central tenets of the Christian faith, the nature of God, the divinity of Christ, or make man into a god of some sort. . . . Preterists hardly have the desire to subvert, manipulate, or destroy the church. Rather, seeking God’s word above all else, fulfilled prophecy thrives in that community with the purpose of strengthening the body through correcting what it sees as misapprehensions from our forefathers. . . . “ Samuel M. Frost, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (Colorado Springs, CO: Bimillennial Press, 2006), page 48.

228. http://www.preterist.org/articles/article08-21-01.asp. Stevens is the founder of the International Preterist Association, website http://preterist.org.

229. http://www.wix.com/edwhynotme/fandd#!articles.

230. Gary DeMar stated that Justin Martyr and Papias were the only two early church fathers who could be classified as premillennial during the earliest decades of the 2nd century. See Gary DeMar (and Francis X. Gumerlock), The Early Church and the End of the Word (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision, 2006), Chapter 4. DeMar also points out that while Papias (died c. AD 155) is often a favorite church father of premillennialists, the claims that Papias got his views from the apostles is a shaky claim. Papias probably got his information second or third hand. Eusebius was highly critical of Papias’ premillennial views (Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 39: http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/250103.htm). DeMar also argues that the sources for Justin Martyr’s premillennialism are questionable. Gumerlock, in the same book (page 99), quotes Augustine as giving alternate interpretations for the
Second Coming, including that it could refer to a coming of “Christ to the Church” in a continuous sense, or to a bodily return to earth at the end of history. Gumerlock quotes others throughout church history that saw the Second Coming as non-bodily.

231. David Chilton, The Days of Vengeance: An Exposition of the Book of Revelation, (Tyler, Texas: Dominion Press, 1987), page 494.

232. See the writings of Samuel M. Frost.

233. Alan Patrick Boyd, “A Dispensational Premillennial Analysis of the Eschatology of the Post-Apostolic Fathers (until the Death of Justin Martyr),” Th. M. thesis, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1977. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday,  and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted in 1989, page 114. See also Joseph M. Vincent II, The Millennium: Past, Present, or Future? A Biblical Defense for the 40 Year Transition Period (Ardmore, OK: JaDon Publishing, 2012), Chapter 1. See also See Gary DeMar (and Francis X. Gumerlock), The Early Church and the End of the Word (Powder Springs, GA: American Vision, 2006), Chapter 4.

234. There seems to be some doubt or debate about exactly what was agreed upon at these ancient councils, especially at the Council of Ephesus. Apparently the reports of condemnations of millennialism at these councils are from secondary sources. But it does seem clear that Augustine thought that millennialism was a superstition, and his thoughts were accepted as authoritative. This seems to be confirmed by the Nicene Creed. The Italian abbot Joachim of Fiore (c. 1130-1202) revived chiliasm for a time.

235. From “American Lutheran Views on Eschatology and How They Related to the American Protestants” by John M. Brenner.

236. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (3.25.5).

237. See Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000). One can also find various lists of historic false prophets on the Internet, such as these websites:
http://www.abhota.info/index.htm
http://www.ministryserver.com/rwsr/Part01_Introduction.htm
http://americanvision.org/4545/before-harold-camping-therewas-chuck-smith
http://publisherscorner.nordskogpublishing.com/2009/01/is-it-time-for-doomsday-or-for-building.html.

The interested reader can search for more such sites in the Internet.

238. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Nelson_Darby.

239. We are especially indebted to the authors of this book: Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985, reprinted 1989). We draw from chapters 5, 8, 14, and 16. This book is considered by some to be authoritative concerning dispensationalism. Both were pastors in Presbyterian churches at the time of the writing of their book. Crenshaw is a graduate of Dallas Theological Seminary. Both authors were dispensationalists for more than 30 years. Neither author is a preterist, but presumably were amillennialists at the time of the writing of the book. We also used a summary from an online source http://www.gotquestions.org, as well as other sources. Another very helpful book is by Gary DeMar, End Times Fiction: a Biblical Consideration of the Left Behind Theology (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers).

240. John F. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ (Chicago: Moody Press, 1966).

241. We credit this book for help with this outline: Robert A. Peterson and Michael D. Williams, Why I Am Not an Arminian (Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, 2004). We also recommend the this book for the opposing view: Jerry L. Walls and Joseph R. Dongell, Why I Am Not a Calvinist (Downers Grove, Il: Intervarsity Press, 2004).

242. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985, reprinted 1989).

243. The term “Reformed” is often understood as a synonym for Calvinist. Calvinists are most often found in Presbyterian churches but also increasingly in some Baptist and some Bible churches. Calvinists emphasize God’s election. Lutherans hold to similar beliefs, emphasizing salvation by grace through the work of the Holy Spirit. But Lutherans believe, unlike Calvinists, that salvation is potentially for all who believe (not just those predestined to believe), and they also believe that man can turn away from faith (rather than “once saved always saved”). Arminians in the modern church are represented by Methodists and some Baptists/Bible churches, and teach salvation by grace but emphasize man’s free will to accept God’s gift of grace. Catholics believe that we are saved by grace infused with works and sacrament. Semi-Pelagians take a further step towards works righteousness, believing that we are saved by grace plus works, and may be found in various sects including some Churches of Christ. Full-Pelagians believe that we are saved by our good works only. Both semi-Pelagians and full-Pelagians are considered legalists, and we consider legalism outside the circle of orthodoxy on matters of justification. At best, semi-Pelagians are on the edge of the circle of orthodoxy, depending on how they understand grace. (It is contradictory and not adequately biblical to say we are saved by grace, but here is a list of things that one has to do to be saved. . . .)

244. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow, (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted 1989, pages 404-405.

245. There is much confusion on the doctrine of man’s sinful nature. Theologians make a distinction between “total depravity” and “utter depravity.” Utter depravity would mean that man can do no good whatsoever. Christianity does not teach utter depravity, but rather teaches that man is totally depraved, which means that every aspect of his life is touched by sin. Orthodox Christianity does not teach that man can do no good at all in any sense.

246. http://dispensationalist.blogspot.com/2012/05/what-about-esther-817.html.

247. The Ashkenazi Jews may not be descended from Abraham.

248. See the book by Don K. Preston, Israel 1948: Countdown to No
Where.

249. Curtis I. Crenshaw and Grover E. Gunn III, Dispensationalism Today, Yesterday, and Tomorrow (Memphis, TN: Footstool Publications, 1985), reprinted 1989, page 106.

250. Don K. Preston, D. Div., Who Is This Babylon (Ardmore, Oklahoma:
JaDon Management, Inc., 2006), page 326.

251. There is apparently a movement within the dispensational camp to modernize and correct its theology at key points, as explained in this article by Kenneth L. Gentry entitled “Recent Developments in the Eschatological Debate”: http://www.reformationonline.com/debate.htm.

252. Here is an excellent article about our hope: http://preteristvoice.org/Fun12.html, and an article about contemplating heaven: http://www.conversiondiary.com/2013/07/how-to-think-about-the-afterlife-hint-you-cant-because-you-live-in-flatland.html.

253. David Green is editor of The Preterist Cosmos: http://www.preteristcosmos.com.

254. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of
Christ’s Second Coming (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist
Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), pages 551-552.

255. Wording in this section is from this source: http://www.prophecyrefi.org/release_95-theses.htm.

256. We are grateful to John Noe for some of the wording of this section. We found his article on the Internet: http://planetpreterist.com/content/only-defense-major-case-against-christ-christianity-and-bible.

257. David Green is editor of The Preterist Cosmos as well as editor of this book. See http://www.preteristcosmos.com.

258. Tina Rae Collins, The Gathering in the Last Days (New York: M.
F. Sohn Publications, 2012), page 157.

259. http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/church-practice/quitting-church.php. This site has several thought-provoking articles about ecclesiology: http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/index.php.

260. See the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy: http://www.theopedia.com/Chicago_Statement_on_Biblical_Inerrancy.

261. See these articles about the shocking decline of Christianity in America:
•  http://endoftheamericandream.com/archives/how-will-the-shocking-decline-of-christianity-in-america-affect-the-future-of-this-nation

http://www.barna.org/teens-next-gen-articles/528-six-reasonsyoung-christians-leave-church

http://marc5solas.com/2013/02/08/top-10-reasons-our-kids-leave-church/

http://www.gotquestions.org/falling-away.html.

262. Paul does not always give an apologetic with the gospel. Paul’s
model teaches us to be discerning about who our audience is and to
mold our message accordingly (1 Corinthians 9:16-23). We favor evidentiary classical apologetics over presuppositional apologetics. Sproul and Gerstner adequately discredited presuppositional apologetics, a fad in some Reformed circles. See R. C. Sproul, John Gerstner, and Arthur Lindsley, Classical Apologetics: A Rational Defense of the Christian Faith and a Critique of Presuppositional Apologetics, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984). See a website of the author for helpful apologetic material: http://www.faithfacts.org.

263. See http://www.faithfacts.org/bible-101/christian-cram-course#trinity.

264. See http://www.faithfacts.org/search-for-truth.

265. “Nominalism” is dead, inactive Christianity. “Antinomianism” is the idea that moral law does not apply to the Christian’s salvation or life. Together, nominalism and antinomianism combine to produce easy believism. “Fideism” is the unbiblical view that faith and reason are incompatible. That is, Christianity is true because we believe it, rather than we believe it because it is objectively true. The Christian faith is unique among religions, as it is based on evidence, and thus is not blind faith. See http://www.faithfacts.org.

266. For definitions of these terms, see the endnote above earlier in this chapter. We specifically reject semi-Pelagianism and full-Pelagianism.

267. Used with permission. Source: David Green, http://www.preteristcosmos.com/preterism101.html.

268. See Francis X. Gumerlock, The Day and the Hour: Christianity’s Perennial Fascination with Predicting the End of the World (Powder Springs, Georgia: American Vision, 2000). One can also find various lists of historic false prophets on the Internet, such as these websites:
http://www.abhota.info/index.htm,
http://www.ministryserver.com/rwsr/Part01_Introduction.htm
http://americanvision.org/4545/before-harold-camping-therewas-chuck-smith/
http://publisherscorner.nordskogpublishing.com/2009/01/is-it-time-for-doomsday-or-for-building.html.

The interested reader can search for more such sites in the Internet.

269. See http://www.treeoflifeministries.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=198%3Amike-sullivan&catid=35%3Apreterist-eschatology-all-prophecy-fulfilled-by-ad-70&Itemid=77.

270. J. Stuart Russell, The Parousia: The New Testament Doctrine of Christ’s Second Coming, (Bradford, Pennsylvania: International Preterist Association, 2003, originally published in 1878), pages 344, 346.

271. See also: http://www.biblicalpreteristarchive.com/statements/70-Qs.htm. (Many of our questions came from this source.)

272. The passages that are often given to prove that the soul survives the body include: Luke 16:22-26; 23:43; Philippians 1:21-23; 2 Corinthians 5:8; Revelation 6:9-11; 20:4, 14; 21:8. But even John Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI) said this: “The immortality of the soul must be firmly rejected as an idea which goes against the grain of biblical thought.” (Joseph Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life, Second Edition (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 1988, originally published in German in 1977), page 74.) Ratzinger also stated concerning the duality of soul and body, “. . . the work of Thomas and the Council of Vienne, has conceived this duality in such a way that it is not dualistic but rather brings to light the worth and unity of the human being as a whole.” (Ibid, page 159)

273. Here’s a smattering of articles we found on the Internet:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_in_the_Bible
http://www.ucg.org/death/what-does-bible-say-about-immortal-soul/
http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/death/is-the-soul-immortal.php
http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/death/life-in-christ/chapter8.php

274. The Reformation Study Bible (Lake Mary, Florida: Ligonier Ministries,
2005), page 1743.

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